Skin whitening is the practice of using substances, mixtures, or physical treatments to lighten skin color. Skin whitening treatments work by reducing the content of melanin of the skin.
Melanin is the main substance responsible for the color of the skin. Melanin is class of dark polymers generated by the body through the process of melanogenesis. Among the melanin pigmenting the skin and hair, Two types can be distinguished based on its chemical composition and biological route of synthesis.the black/brown eumelanin and the red/yellow pheomelanin. The variation of skin color among individuals is mostly because of variation of the content of melanin in the skin. Skin with little or no melanin is almost white. Other factors influence skin color in a lesser degree, including the amount of blood in blood vessels (because of the color of blood), skin thickness and content of carotenoids in skin.